Apfelbaum vermehren im Winter - Teil 2

vom 18. Feb. 2010
Apfel-Experte John Hermann Cordes zeigt die Veredelungstechnik der Kopulation
weiter im Programm ...

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TEXT UND INFO ZUM FILM

Drehort:
Obstbaumschule Hermann Cordes bei Pinneberg
Länge:
6 Min.
Filmkatalog:Praxis
Moderator:
Marc Albano

(Fortsetzung vom ersten Filmteil)

Die Kopulation

Das Übereinanderlegen der zwei Triebe dient vor allem dazu, das Kambium beider Teile zu verbinden. Das Kambium liegt zwischen dem Holz und der Rinde und ist das aktive Wuchs- und "Saft-Leit-Gewebe" des Baums. Also von entscheidender Bedeutung!

Das Kambium wird die zwei Teile der Veredlung miteinander verbinden - das innere Holz kann das nicht leisten, denn es ist von inaktiver Natur.

Also geht es vor allem um den äußeren Ring der Ellipse des Kopulationsschnitts. Dieser Ring beider Triebteile muß möglichst vollständig übereinanderzuliegen kommen - daher die Vorgabe, daß beide Teile etwa gleich groß sein sollten.

Das Verbinden

Ein Verbinden der Kopulation mit Gummiband hat den Vorteil, daß dieses sich dehnen kann, wenn der Trieb im Frühjahr anwächst und sich im Durchmesser weitet. Auch kann sich das Gummiband dann irgendwann selber ganz vom Baum ablösen, indem es mit der Zeit porös wird und der Dehnung nachgibt.

Trotzdem ist nach Wochen zu prüfen, ob sich der Knoten des Bandes wirklich ablöst und nicht etwa sich in das wachsende Holz hineinschneidet. In dem Fall wäre das Band manuell vom Baum zu entfernen.

Andere Materialien zum Verbinden, z.B. Bast, sind möglich, müssen dann aber ggf. nach dem Verwachsen rechzeitig mit der Hand wieder abgelöst werden.

Das Abschließen

Nach der Kopulation wird die Veredelungsstelle vollkommen luftdicht abgeschlossen. Dazu verwendet man idealerweise warmflüssige Materialien: entweder sgn. Rebwachs oder Baumwachs.

Kleine Veredelungen kann man tauchen, größere bestreicht man mit dem Pinsel (dabei auch die Schnittstelle ganz oben an der Spitze des Edelreises einbeziehen). Wenn man draußen in der Natur veredelt, kann man auch sgn. flüssige Rinde oder "Lac Balsam" kalt verwenden und mit dem Pinsel verstreichen.

Alle drei Materialien erlauben dem Baum, allmählich mit den wachsenden, neuen Trieben die Schutzschicht selber zu durchbrechen und sich der Schicht schließlich zu entledigen. Nur in der ersten, sensiblen Phase also wird die Veredelungsstelle komplett vor Feuchtigkeit und eindringenden Pilzen und Bakterien geschützt.

Übrigens sollte man das Tauchverfahren nicht im Fall des Baumwachses anwenden, weil dieses zum Verflüssigen eine höhere Temperatur benötigt und die Hitze dem getauchten Bäumchen schaden würde.

Das Pflanzen

Den fertig veredelten, jungen Baum kann man wiederum kühl, aber frostfrei lagern. Nach den Winterfrösten bei wieder offenem Boden pflanzt man ihn dann ins Freie. Anschließend gilt es nur noch darauf zu achten, daß sich das Band um die Veredelungsstelle korrekt wieder löst.

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